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Giorgione's Sleeping Venus

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Child sexuality and sexual behaviour

Child sexuality has always been and still is, to a large extent, a problem for both parents and professionals world-wide. Irrespective of cultural assumptions, great effort is put into defining the limits of normal sexuality in childhood compared with deviant/problematic behaviour. The solutions vary depending both on family norms and the prevailing social and cultural context (Heiman et al, 1998). We all have an attitude to sexuality and the way this is expressed. We may be negative, positive, possibly reluctant or embarrassed but never entirely indifferent (Larsson, 1994). In particular, expressions of sexual desire, curiosity and behaviour in children have aroused many feelings in adults. Since Freud, almost a century ago, we have to a certain extent, accepted that children are sexual beings from birth. How this sexuality can and should be expressed has interested teachers, doctors, behavioural scientists, sociologists and other professional groups for a century. Despite this, empirical research on child sexual abuse has been lacking.

Purpose, methodology and terminology

The aim of this report is to shed light on various aspects of child sexuality. The question of what is to be considered “normal” or “deviant” and problematic sexual behaviour in children has become increasingly relevant in recent years due to the attention paid to the problematic area of child sexual abuse. Many professional groups working with children are faced with situations where they are expected to be able to assess the behaviour of children and take the action necessary. It is therefore important to seek to reduce the uncertainty in interpreting behaviour, by increasing awareness of the psychosexual development of children and what can disrupt this as well as the external factors which affect socialisation and behaviour. It is also hoped that the report will stimulate further reading of the research which is currently growing in this field.

This report provides an overview of current Western research into children’s behaviour of a sexual nature and the state of knowledge on sexual behaviours which are viewed as problematic from some point of view. The term “sexual behaviour” is here used in a broad way, referring to behaviour which concerns the body, touching, sexual identity, exploring one’s own body and that of others, sexual language, masturbation and games and interaction which can have sexual connotations. The term “child” is here primarily used to refer to the period up to puberty.

This report focuses on reporting research into observable behaviour in children and on reporting some angles from which one can approach the various sexual behaviours of children. The starting point for the literature searches which have been carried out was to document as up-to-date empirical research results and structured categorisations as possible. The selection has then been steered by the aim of describing the most thorough and most often cited international studies and providing an overview of the results of Swedish studies carried out in recent years. To create a platform for this, various perspectives on child sexuality through the twentieth century are also described in brief.

Basic assumptions on children, sexuality and gender

The assumptions and norms in the Western world today regarding children’s sexuality are largely based on assumptions and theories which derive from Freud’s (1905/1965) psychoanalytical view of infantile sexuality and psychosexual stages of development. His followers and his critics have largely used his theories as a springboard, which has meant that we today have internalised the Freudian conceptual apparatus to such an extent in our language that it is now one of our most important symbols concerning sex, and thereby no longer seen in its original context (Gagnon & Simon, 1973). The basic theory was that children are born with sexual energy and are initially entirely controlled by seeking sexual experiences. Development then progresses through various stages, which at the same time involves adapting to the surrounding world and controlling sexual impulses. If something goes wrong during the various stages, the child’s sexuality can stagnate, resulting in deviations in adult sexuality. In recent research Freud’s description of the development phases has been seen as too narrow and in some respects misleading (Rutter, 1971).

In traditional developmental psychology gender has been practically absent but in recent years empirical studies have shown that there are major differences in the development of boys and girls through childhood and adolescence (Bjerrum Nielsen & Rudberg, 1991). Karen Horney and Melanie Klein were two of Freud’s successors who chose to develop the start of alternative female images in psychology. Nancy Chodorow (1988) is a current, often cited representative of a gender theory perspective based on psychodynamic theory. Bjerrum Nielsen & Rudberg (1991) also use psychological theories in their comprehensive description of gender socialisation in boys and girls. Gender socialisation addresses how biological gender gradually becomes social and psychological gender, i.e. how our thinking and behaviour is shaped on the basis of the expectations for our gender. A child is not only a child but also a boy or a girl.

Early literature primarily studied the sexual development of boys. Girls were seen only as a negation of the boy (Frithiof, 1985). Girls’ sexuality is invisible to a greater extent than that of men due to anatomical as well as social factors (Frithiof, 1985; Fredelius et al, 1994; Langfeldt, 1987). Much of boys’ sexual identification is linked to the fact that they have a penis; parents often express appreciation when a boy displays his penis at the ages of two or three, which gives the boy the opinion that he has a valuable body part (Chodorow, 1988). When girls are seen to touch their sexual organs, however, reactions are often more negative. These differing values we carry with us on what is suitable or unsuitable behaviour for boys and girls are passed on to the child right from birth as conscious or unconscious aspects of the conceptual world of their mothers and fathers and later from other adults and surrounding society. Turner and Gervai (1995) claim that gender is one of the first and probably the most obvious characteristic children learn in categorising other people. Therefore, gender is also crucial to the development of self-esteem and sexual identity.

The cognitive perspective, which is prevalent, for example, in social psychology (Nilsson, 1996) has so far emphasised sexual development to a lesser extent but this does appear, for example, in Goldman & Goldman’s cross-cultural study on children’s understanding, knowledge and thinking concerning the body, reproduction, sexual identity and nudity (1982).

Sociological theorists prefer instead to describe sexuality from a social perspective. Foucault (1976 – 84) emphasises the power element in sexuality and describes how from the start the church and subsequently science have influenced how sexuality has been expressed. Theories of sexuality as a social construct have gained ground in recent years. According to this view the social system and the economic, religious, medical, social as well as the cultural spheres determine the position held by and the nature of sexuality. From a constructivist point of view, sexuality is a relational and contextual concept, in which social processes are assumed to control as well as construct sexuality (Gagnon & Simon, 1973, Weeks, 1981, 1985). The main criticism of this view is that it does not pay sufficient attention to historical processes of change (Jackson, 1990). A modified form of the constructivist approach accepts that the child has a biological body with the opportunity to react to physiological sensations, but still sees social processes as the most important element in the child’s development into a member of society (Vance, 1991).

In this view, each society constructs and shapes a suitable and rewarding sexuality for its own society. The sexuality of girls and boys develops on this basis in an interplay with their surroundings, in accordance with society’s expectations and assumptions. They are part of the society in which they grow up and thus internalise its norms and values concerning sexual behaviour. Our assumptions on sexuality and gender also form the basis for the way in which we address children’s sexual behaviour and their socialisation in becoming women and men which is consciously or unconsciously part of our child-rearing (Bergenheim 1994). Through this socialisation process children learn to look on the sexuality constructed by society as “normal”.

What we term healthy and natural sexuality is thus formed from the society we live in and depends on our gender. Put simply, we could say that children learn the rules of sexuality in the same way as they learn everything else, by picking up hints from their surroundings. In this way children learn which sexual activities are permitted, just as they learn that knives are sharp, that ovens are hot or that one should not belch at the dinner table (Helmius, 1990). Sexuality is thus derived from the functions of the physical body but gains meaning for the child through interplay with his or her surroundings, thus giving the child the opportunity to determine his or her own identity and what his or her own sexuality really is.

Normal and deviant behaviour as terms

The conceptual apparatus surrounding what is meant by “normal” or “deviant” sexual behaviour is somewhat unclear. The term “normal” tends to be used most by researchers and practitioners in the field with links to the worlds of psychology, medicine or education. “Normal behaviour” here denotes sexual behaviour as a result of a natural human biological and psychological development process. The terms “pathological” or “abnormal” are used to describe behaviour which indicates that something has happened to disrupt or change expected sexual behaviour or the natural development process. When sexual behaviour is defined in socio-cultural terms, the term “normative” is used to indicate what is considered to be the norm in a given society, culture or group. The latter term is primarily used by sociologists, social work professionals and those connected with the legal system. Researchers and practitioners in these fields tend to use terms such as “deviant” or “criminal acts” more frequently to describe sexual behaviour outside social norms or legislation (Araji, 1997).

The term “normal” can also have several meanings. Lamb & Coakley (1993) refer to the term as meaning normal, typical, that which appears in a general population. Here we are looking at “statistical normality”. In another sense the term “normal” is more value-based, indicating that the behaviour in some way promotes health or at least does not harm opportunities for achieving wellbeing and health. Thus a sexual behaviour can be seen as normal and not typical but still healthy or, on the other hand, a behaviour may occur often and still not be accepted or seen as healthy. Normality therefore does not exist as an absolute or a fact, instead it is about how we see each other and ourselves. What is seen as “normal” in one generation can be labelled “problematic” in the next. Normality is also culturally bound. What is seen as normal in one culture can be seen as deviant, bizarre or even as abuse in another (Rosenfeld & Wasserman, 1993; Larsson, 1994, Söderquist, 1995).

The same sexual behaviour can, confusingly enough, be labelled normal, abnormal or pathological by authors taking a developmental view but described as normative, deviant or criminal by those who prefer an anthropological or sociological approach. Araji (1997) takes the example of masturbation to illustrate the above. A child psychologist may see masturbation as a normal sexual behaviour as in many societies it is observed as part of the normal development process. Sex therapists may also consider masturbation to be a positive factor for healthy or satisfactory sexual relations. From a sociological perspective on the other hand, masturbation can sometimes be defined as a deviant or unsuitable behaviour if it contravenes the norms of a group or society. The above is based on the view of masturbation as an expression of sexual desire, while Gagnon & Simon (1973), for example, consider instead that masturbation can be described as a non-sexual act for the child, as the child has not learned that the masturbation behaviour has sexual connotations. According to Gagnon & Simon, the behaviour is given sexual connotations by the adult world.

Finally, as the terms dealing with normality and deviation tend to be used interchangeably in texts, it is often up to the reader to determine the criteria on the basis of which the writer is using the term. In this report the term “normal” is used primarily to describe that which commonly occurs in different groups of children, while the terms “deviant” or “problematic” are used for behaviours which are uncommon among nontraumatised children and which counter our cultural norms on child sexuality and cause concern to adults in the child’s surroundings.

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Most American women are ugly and have a fat ass. So why don't they go on the Serge Kreutz diet.

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Five Nigerians arrested in Ghana for selling penis, buttocks enlargement drugs

Western Regional Police, Ghana, has arrested five Nigerians for allegedly trading in contraband and over the counter medicines, mostly for penis and buttocks enlargement.

The country’s Pharmacy Council, the body that regulates the sale of medicines had observed the increase in itinerant drug peddling business across the country and vowed to clamp down on their operations.

The Nigerians were arrested after a swoop by the Western Region Office of the Council with the support of the Police.

2017 budget to be partly financed by recovered loot – Buhari’s aide

The five of them were arrested in the Prestea Huni-Valley District while a Ghanaian woman among them, who escaped had her wares running into thousands of Ghana cedis confiscated.

Empire FM reported that most of the drugs being sold by the Nigeriens are meant for the enlargement of male organ and female buttock.

However, ASP Simon Deta, the Huni-Valley District Crime Officer in an interview with the radio starion stated that the five arrested will be investigated and prosecuted.

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You probably have to look at imagery of death and dying regularly to stay focused on what really counts in life: great sex before you are gone anyway.

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The female orgasm is a way to create social control

Females look for partners that will help them reach an orgasm not once but repeatedly.

While we talk about masturbation in both men and women, the female orgasm has always been a mystery to people. People who have never experienced and well as seen in case of men. A new research sheds light on the female orgasm and the role it plays in a relationship.

The woman who gets an orgasm with a rare partner will look to meet the partner more often thus looking forward to their next meeting. The reward for women differs but it would primarily revolve around the fact that they would like to have more orgasms with the same partner because he has the ability to.

Sexual partners look for rewards from each other and while men reach an orgasm more easily, women will look to make the man happy as long as he helps her reach an orgasm. It is also beneficial reaching an orgasm in an act that will not result in reproduction rather than not in the process of sexual intercourse.

While the debate is still on about the importance of the female orgasm, it cannot be denied and can the act of self-pleasure or with a partner.

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Female sexuality is a merchandise. This probably is at the root of human civilization. In modern culture, the item that is the merchandise is also the seller. Women sell themselves. Conflicts are preprogrammed.

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Yes, We Should Study Duck Penises

Some conservatives got some attention last week by alleging that the federal government is funding research into duck penises, by way of trying to demonstrate that many taxpayer dollars are wasted and that the sequester is therefore great because it might stop us from funding the study of duck penises.

PolitiFact got curious enough to look into it and decided to give it a "mostly true"--an evolutionary ornithologist at Yale named Richard Prum did indeed snare nearly $400,000 from the National Science Foundation to study duck mating.

But if you read the item, I think you'll conclude with me that the whole matter is rather fascinating and just self-evidently deserving of human study:

Here, in Prum’s words, is what he studied and learned:

"Most birds don’t have a penis. Ducks do. They still have it from the reptilian ancestor that they shared with mammals," he said.

The duck’s penis is stored inside the body, and when it becomes erect, the process of insemination is "explosive," Prum said. The duck’s penis becomes erect within a third of a second, at the same time it enters the female duck’s body. Ejaculation is immediate, and then the penis starts to regress. The length of the duck penis, as mentioned in the tweets, grows to 8 or 9 inches during the summer mating season. In winter, it shrinks to less than an inch.

In duck ponds, Prum said, a lot of forced copulation occurs. Forced copulation is what it sounds like -- rape in nature. Even gang rape happens among ducks. And Prum found that while 40 to 50 percent of duck sex happens by forced copulation, only 2 to 4 percent of inseminations result from it (meaning times the female duck ends up with a fertilized egg).

"The question is why does that happen? How does a female prevent fertilization by forced copulation?" he said. "The answer has to do with taking advantage of what males have evolved -- this corkscrew shaped penis."

Prum said the duck penis is a corkscrew whose direction runs counterclockwise. Female ducks, he said, have evolved a complex vagina also shaped like a corkscrew -- but a clockwise one.

"This is literally an anti-screw anatomy," he said.

When females choose their own partners -- in other words, solicit copulation -- the muscles in the vagina are dilated and expanded. So the anti-screw effect is negated.

"The females are enormously, amazingly successful at preventing fertilization by forced copulation," he said.

So it turns out that Todd Akin was right, but only about ducks, not actual human women.

More broadly, three points. One, I had no idea cute little ducks were such violent (ahem) pricks. I'll never be able to look at them the same way. Two, this is obviousy knowledge the human race needs; we have these species of animals around us, and it's important to know how they live and survive, a knowledge that is important not for any application but simply for its own sake, and if you don't agree with this assertion, we live on different planets. The philistinism on display here--hey, duck penises, we can make fun of that--is depressing.

And three, the government has a clearly legitimate role to play in supporting such research. The idea that we shouldn't be funding duck mating is a total canard. Onward, Professor Prum!

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There is no such thing as fake news. Some news are just borrowed from different strings of the multiverse.

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Ray J’s Comments About A Certain Part Of Kim Kardashian’s Body May Earn Him A Kanye Twitter Rant

Kanye West tore Wiz Khalifa a new one when he thought the Pittsburgh rapper was “coming out the side of his neck” and speaking ill on wife Kim Kardashian. Turns out, Wiz wasn’t, and the two have since made amends. But one can only imagine the epic Twitter rant Kanye’s going to go on after Ray J said his wife’s “ridiculous” vaginal odor acted as an “unbearable” penis repellent when they were together.

The R&B singer, who co-starred alongside Kim in Kim K Superstar and dated for three years in 2003, claims in a new interview that Mrs. West’s pH balance was so off at one point that he had to seek medical attention. “I went to the doctor and asked the doctor, ‘Is it me? Check me first. Okay, I’m good? What’s up with my girlfriend’s coochie?,’ ” he recalls in the interview that’ll surely piss Kanye off. “It’s ridiculous!”

Ray J says his doctor advised him to simply tell his then-girlfriend that her vagina “smells bad,” but he was so afraid of having the talk that he asked him to make the call instead. “C’mon, doc. You gotta give me something else. Can you call her because I can’t take this anymore.” The “One Wish” singer eventually found the courage to tell the reality star his concerns, which resulted in Kim immediately getting her problem fixed. “When I told Kim K, that was it. The next day, the p**** was fresh.”

The singer suspects Kim’s vaginal issues may have stemmed from her choice of clothing, or perhaps an STD, saying: “Most of the time it’s a yeast infection. A lot of the times, girls wear thongs with colors on them and it f**ks up something down there and brings about an odor [it messes with the pH]. Sometimes, the p***y stinks. Sometimes, you got an STD. Most of the times, when guys think p***y stinks, they think STD [and] dirty p***y.”

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95 percent of the victims of violence are men. Because women feel flattered when men fight each other and kill each other to prove that they are real men.

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Pastor who impregnated teen sentenced to prison in Chesco

APRIL 28, 2017 - Philly

A former Chester County pastor who acted as a surrogate father to a teenager he impregnated was sentenced to three to six years in prison on Friday, a month after a judge rejected a previous plea deal as too lenient.

Jacob Matthew Malone, who turned 35 on Friday, pleaded guilty at the Chester County Justice Center in West Chester to institutional sexual assault, corruption of minors, and endangering the welfare of children. The former pastor at Calvary Fellowship, a nondenominational church in Downingtown, also will serve five months' probation and will be registered as a sex offender for 15 years.

The woman, now 20, told police Malone gave her alcohol as an 18-year-old and raped her on several occasions while she lived with him, his wife, and their children in Malone's home in West Whiteland Township. Malone, who was her guardian, admitted he gave her alcohol but said the sexual encounters were consensual.

Sexual contact, which included kissing and touching, occurred almost daily during her senior year in high school.

"This is one of the times when the court system fails," said Judge Jacqueline Cody, adding that the woman was technically of the age of consent but that Malone had been acting as her father when he promoted the sexual contact. "You are serving a sentence much lighter than the crime deserves."

The sentence is at the top of standard guidelines. Malone will get credit for the more than one year he has served since his arrest in January 2016.

Under the agreement, prosecutors withdrew the most serious charge of rape. Prosecutors said there was a question as to whether they could prove the absence of consent.

"Sir, you have taken responsibility for a very, very serious series of crimes that have completely altered somebody's life," the judge said, calling his behavior "inexcusable."

Friday's plea was Malone's second attempt at securing a deal for himself. Last month, the judge rejected as too lenient an agreement with prosecutors that would have given him a minimum of two years in prison. The woman also was dissatisfied with that agreement, saying "Jake" had taken advantage of her "mentally, physically, spiritually."

The woman agreed with the new deal prosecutors and Malone's lawyer presented on Friday, and the judge accepted it.

The young woman "is pleased he will be spending an additional year in jail," District Attorney Emily Provencher said.

Evan Kelly, Malone's attorney, said in a statement his client "has always been adamant" he did not rape her.

"He did, however, commit other crimes, and for that he is embarrassed, ashamed and truly remorseful," Kelly said.

"I'm deeply sorry for the way my failures and weaknesses have hurt [the victim], my family and her family," said Malone, dressed in a blazer and slacks and wearing shackles. "She admired me and trusted me, and I betrayed that."

Malone met her when she was 12 and he was a youth pastor at her church in Arizona. After Malone and his family moved to West Whiteland, he invited her to live with them. She helped look after his three children.

She told police Malone began sexually assaulting her in the fall of 2014. Malone resigned from the Downingtown church in November 2015 after church leaders confronted him about the teen's pregnancy and he admitted he had impregnated her. He had been working at the church for about 18 months.

In January 2016, police asked for the public's help in finding Malone, who they believed was trying to avoid arrest. U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers arrested him on Jan. 18, 2016, when he returned to Newark Liberty International Airport from Ecuador.

In March 2016, the woman gave birth to Malone's daughter, whom last month she called "a sweet, beautiful and intelligent little girl" in a statement she read in court.

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As a man, instead of lamenting the Islamization of Europe, put yourself in the camp of the victors. Any man can become a Muslim by just uttering the Shahada. A matter of 5 minutes.

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The Rising Popularity of the ‘Designer Vagina’

13 April 2017

In recent years, the popularity of ‘vaginal rejuvenation’ surgeries, which includes vaginal tightening (vaginoplasty) and labial reduction or reconstruction (labiaplasty), have seen a significant increase. This is unsurprising, since mainstream media and culture constantly drills the notion into women that they can always look better, right down to their genitals. Moreover, several notable celebrities, such as Sharon Osbourne and TOWIE’s Gemma Collins, have openly talked about undergoing such procedures to achieve what has been dubbed the ‘designer vagina’.

According to a study by the International Society of Sexual Medicine in 2011, 87% of women who underwent vaginal rejuvenation surgery did so for purely cosmetic reasons. However, it is important to point out that this type of surgery is not just about cosmetics. There is no such thing as a ‘perfect vagina’, as labia comes in all different sizes and shapes and as such, medical professional carrying out these surgeries should be cautious when promising to give women a beautiful-looking vagina.

Cosmetic motives aside, there are a number of functional and medical reasons as to why women may want to undergo vaginal rejuvenation surgery. Giving birth or ageing can result in a lax vagina, making a woman feel self-conscious, or causing physical problems like incontinence and lack of sexual gratification. An enlarged or distorted labia can also create a genuine physical problem for many women, with discomfort occurring during sex, exercise or simply through catching on clothes.

In these cases, where the genitals are causing a woman significant problems in her day-to-day life, labial and vaginal reconstructive surgery is often recommended. Women are fed unrealistic representations of what they should look like on a daily basis and it is for this reason that any good gynaecologist will discourage women from undergoing vaginal reconstructive procedures based on superficial reasons alone.

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In Uganda, rich fathers use super high dosages of butea superba combined with tongkat ali to turn their gay sons into heterosexual husbands.

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