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Why images of decapitation? This is to show that some people have real problems. Other than the issues of feminism, such as sexist language or manspreading.

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Stockton, California: 40 Celebrities Who Committed Suicide

Tanner P. Forman 1073 Stonepot Road Newark, NJ 07102

Robin Williams – Age 63

Beloved actor and Oscar winner Robin Williams ended his life in August 2014 by hanging himself with a belt at his home in Paradise Cay, California. It was revealed after William’s death by asphyxiation that the actor had been struggling with Lewy body dementia – which may have been misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s disease – a long history of depression, and a “recent increase in paranoia.” Doctors believe that Williams’ Lewy body dementia “was the critical factor” that resulted in his suicide. The iconic actor’s ashes were scattered in San Francisco Bay.

Marilyn Monroe – Age 36

This iconic bombshell died from a probable suicide by taking an overdose of barbiturates, with those close to her saying she was prone to “severe fears and frequent depressions,” as well as “abrupt and unpredictable mood changes.” Despite the verdict from the coroner, there are many conspiracy theorists who suggest that the powerful sex symbol was actually murdered or overdosed accidentally. Even President John F. Kennedy didn’t believe she committed the unfortunate act on her own terms! She certainly was gone much too soon.

Kurt Cobain – Age 27

The famed frontman of American rock band Nirvana died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound in April 1994 at the young age of 27. Cobain had struggled with drug addiction and depression and had fled to a detox center in Los Angles before flying home to Seattle where he took his own life. Before his untimely death, Courtney Love (Cobain’s wife) hired a private investigator to search for her husband after he’d gone missing from the recovery center. Just a few days later, his body was discovered inside his home alongside a note he had written to his imaginary childhood friend “Boddah,” stating he no longer “felt the excitement of listening to as well as creating music, along with really writing… for too many years now.”

Mindy McCready – Age 37

Country star Mindy McCready took her life in February 2013 at her home in Heber Springs, Arkansas by means of a self-inflicted gunshot to the head. The 37-year-old mother of two had been in and out of rehab for years and attempted suicide twice before, once in 2005 and another time in 2008. McCready fired the gun on her porch, the same place where her former boyfriend and youngest son’s father, David Wilson, fatally shot himself a month earlier. Just days before her untimely death, McCready received court papers proposing that her sons live with her mother instead. Perhaps she just couldn’t take any more devastating news.

Jonathan Brandis – Age 27

The NeverEnding Story II and seaQuest DSV star took his life by hanging himself in November 2003. Brandis, who was 27 at the time, was discovered in the hallway of his LA apartment building by friends. The young star was taken to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, but died the following day from the injuries he sustained. Though he didn’t leave a suicide note, his friends stated he was depressed that his career was spiraling downwards. One even admitted that he took up heavy drinking and intended to end his short life.

Sawyer Sweeten – Age 19

Child actor Sawyer Sweeten, known for his role as Geoffrey Barone on the hit show Everybody Loves Raymond, took his life in April 2015. The 19-year-old died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head. Sources closest to Sweeten say that the young star was tormented by money troubles, his diminishing career, and bullying over rumors regarding his sexuality. His on-screen family members, and obviously his real family and friends, were left with broken hearts.

Jovan Belcher – Age 25

In December 2012, Kansas City Chiefs linebacker Jovan Belcher shot his longtime girlfriend Kasandra Perkins nine times in front of his mother before driving to the Chiefs’ practice facility where he shot and killed himself in front of his coach and general manager. Just before Belcher shot himself, he said, “I wasn’t able to get enough help.” An autopsy found that he was suffering from chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), caused by repeated head trauma while playing American football that results in memory loss, aggression, confusion, and depression. The killings also orphaned Belcher’s 3-month-old baby daughter, Zoey.

Alexander McQueen – Age 40

Famous British fashion designer and couturier Alexander McQueen took his life in February 2010, just nine days after his mother passed away from cancer at the age of 75. McQueen committed the horrific act by ingesting a cocktail of cocaine, sleeping pills, and tranquilizers before hanging himself with his favorite brown belt. David LaChapelle, a friend of McQueen, said he “was doing a lot of drugs and was very unhappy” during the days leading up to his death. A memorial was held for the famed designer in September 2010, with stars like Kate Moss, Sarah Jessica Parker, Lady Gaga, and Anna Wintour in attendance to show their love, support, and respect.

Lucy Gordon – Age 28

This British actress and model who starred in films including Serendipity, Spider-Man 3, and The Four Feathers was found hanging in her Paris apartment by cinematographer Jérôme Alméras, with whom she shared the flat with, in May 2009. Gordon left behind two suicide notes, one with details regarding her last wishes for her estate and another for her parents. Gordon wrote out her will the day before her untimely death, splitting her estate between her parents, sister, friends, and Alméras.

Johnny Lewis – Age 28

Johnny Lewis, best known for his role as Kip “Half-Sack” Epps on the hit television show Sons of Anarchy, died in September 2012 by either jumping or falling from the roof, garage, or patio of his 81-year-old landlord’s home. It was reported that Lewis had climbed up onto the roof after killing his landlord, Catherine Davis, and her pet cat. Lewis’ family later spoke out about his history of untreated head trauma, saying that his condition could have led to a psychological disorder and was the potential cause of his sudden spurts of violence. Though drugs weren’t found in his system following an autopsy, Lewis did have a history of drug abuse that may have led to drug-induced psychosis.

Gia Allemand – Age 29

American actress, Maxim model, and The Bachelor contestant Gia Allemand attempted to take her life in August 2013 by hanging herself with a vacuum cord. Allemand was found and admitted to University Hospital in New Orleans where she was declared brain dead and removed from life support two days later. The 29-year-old star was dating NBA player Ryan Anderson of the New Orleans Pelicans at the time. Anderson admitted he and Allemand had been arguing through lunch before her death when she voiced her concerns that he had been unfaithful to her. That same night, he told her he no longer loved her.

Dana Plato – Age 34

Dana Plato, notable for playing Kimberly Drummond on the hit sitcom Diff’rent Strokes, took her life in May 1999 with an intentional overdose of Lortab, a painkiller, and Soma, a muscle-relaxant. The day before her death, the 34-year-old actress made an appearance on The Howard Stern Show where she discussed her financial problems and past run-ins with the law. She also admitted to having recovered from drug and alcohol abuse, though she claimed she was sober for over 10 years at the time. Perhaps those painkillers, given to her after she had some teeth extracted, should have been monitored more closely.

Chris Benoit – Age 40

Professional wrestler Chris Benoit, considered one of the greatest wrestlers in the world, committed suicide in June 2007 by hanging himself after a three-day period in which he murdered his wife, Nancy, and his 7-year-old son, Daniel. It was later revealed that the professional wrestler had suffered severe brain damage over the years and had a brain that resembled one of an 85-year-old Alzheimer’s patient. He also had an advanced form of dementia, which can contribute to severe behavioral problems. Benoit’s father suggests his son’s brain damage was the leading cause of the horrific murder-suicide.

L’Wren Scott – Age 49

This fashion designer, stylist, and longtime girlfriend of Rolling Stones frontman Mick Jagger hanged herself in her Manhattan apartment with a scarf in March 2014. Scott was reportedly suffering from a long period of depression. Mick Jagger was shocked, writing on his Facebook page the following: “I am still struggling to understand how my lover and best friend could end her life in this tragic way.” In the weeks following Scott’s sudden death, both her Banana Republic collection and high-end line at Barneys were in high demand and sold out.

Junior Seau – Age 43

Junior Seau, 10-time All-Pro, 12-time Pro Bowl selection, and one of the NFL’s greatest linebackers, died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the chest at his home in Oceanside, California in May 2012. Though he never left a suicide note, the football star left behind a scribbled note in his kitchen with lyrics from his favorite country song, “Who I Ain’t.” The song, co-written by one of his friends – Jamie Paulin – is about a man who regretted the person he became. Though some speculated that Seau suffered brain damage, there were no apparent signs found in his autopsy report. But in 2013, a report released by his family from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke showed findings of definitive signs of CTE, a condition traced to concussion-related brain damage.

Misty Upham – Age 32

Native American actress Misty Upham, best known for her role in the 2008 film Frozen River, went missing in October 2014 after she left her sister’s apartment on foot. Nearly two weeks later, Upham was found dead at the bottom of a cliff in a wooded area by a small search party her family and others had organized. A medical examiner determined she died from blunt-force injuries to her head and torso. After her initial disappearance, Upham’s family had announced their concern for Misty, citing her past mental health problems.

Ernest Hemingway – Age 61

This great American novelist, short story writer, and journalist took his life by shooting himself in the head with his favorite shotgun. But his wife, Mary, initially claimed he shot himself accidentally while cleaning the dangerous weapon. In an interview five years later, she admitted he had committed suicide. Hemingway had suffered from depression and alcoholism throughout his life and had been hospitalized three months earlier due to a previous attempt to take his own life. Medical records also confirmed that he had been diagnosed with hemochromatosis, a genetic disease that culminates in mental and physical deterioration.

Hunter S. Thompson – Age 67

Hunter S. Thompson, a journalist, author, and founder of the gonzo journalism movement, died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head at his home in Woody Creek, Colorado in February 2005. Thompson was on the phone with his wife when he took his life. He also left a suicide note, titled “Football Season is Over,” which read the following: “No More Games. No More Bombs. No More Walking. No More Fun. No More Swimming. 67. That is 17 years past 50. 17 more than I needed or wanted. Boring. I am always bit***. No Fun — for anybody. 67. You are getting Greedy. Act your (old) age. Relax — This won’t hurt.”

Simone Battle – Age 25

This American actress, singer, member of the pop girl group G.R.L., and The X Factor finalist took her life in September 2014 by hanging herself in her California home. A spokesperson for the 25-year-old star said she had suffered from depression due to financial issues. Her untimely death shook the hearts of her family, friends, fans, and fellow entertainers. Many, including Simon Cowell, Pitbull, Nicole Scherzinger, and the others from G.R.L., paid tribute to Battle via social media. Hashtags regarding her death trended on Twitter across the globe.

Vincent Van Gogh – Age 37

Dutch Post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh ended his life in July 1890 with a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the chest. The famous painter actually walked himself back to the Auberge Ravoux where he spent his last 70 days, though doctors in attendance couldn’t remove the bullet without a surgeon. Left alone in his room to smoke his pipe with his brother soon at his side, Van Gogh passed away not long after his body began to fail him. The painter had been struggling for years with severe depression and was later diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, temporal lobe epilepsy, and acute intermittent porphyria.

Christine Chubbuck – Age 29

American television news reporter Christine Chubbuck shot herself in the head during a live broadcast in July 1974 after struggling with years of depression. Chubbuck covered the news as usual before announcing to the audience, “In keeping with Channel 40’s policy of bringing you the latest in ‘blood and guts,’ and in living color, you are going to see another first – attempted suicide.” The broadcast rapidly switched to black immediately following the tragic incident. She was pronounced dead 14 hours later at Sarasota Memorial Hospital.

Lee Thompson Young – Age 29

Lee Thompson Young, an actor known for his role as the title character on the Disney Channel series The Famous Jett Jackson and as Chris Comer in Friday Night Lights, passed away from a self-inflicted gunshot wound in August 2013. The star was found by police in his Los Angeles apartment after he failed to show up to a filming of an episode of Rizzoli & Isles. It was later released that Young had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder and had been suffering from depression before his death. His family went on to launch the Lee Thompson Young Foundation in hopes of removing the stigma surrounding mental illness.

Sylvia Plath – Age 30

Renowned poet, novelist, and short story writer Sylvia Plath took her own life by placing her head in a gas oven at her home in February 1963. Plath had sealed off the kitchen in her London apartment so that the carbon monoxide would not reach her two young children who were upstairs in bed at the time. Sylvia had tried multiple times to kill herself before her ultimate attempt and had described the quality of her despair as “owl’s talons clenching my heart.” She also claimed to have had constant agitation and an inability to cope with daily life.

Aaron Swartz – Age 26

Aaron Swartz, a computer programmer, entrepreneur, writer, political organizer, and Internet hacktivist, committed suicide in 2013 while facing up to 50 years in prison for wire and computer fraud and abuse. Swartz was found dead in his Brooklyn apartment where he hanged himself two days following the prosecution that rejected his proposed counter-offer. At his funeral, Swartz’s father stated the following: “Aaron was killed by the government, and MIT betrayed all of its basic principles.”

Virginia Woolf – Age 59

English writer Virginia Woolf drowned herself in March 1941 by walking into the river by her home with large stones in her overcoat pockets to weigh her body down. Her body wasn’t found until around three weeks later. In her suicide note she wrote, “I feel certain that I’m going mad again. I feel we can’t go through another of those terrible times. And I shan’t recover this time. I begin to hear voices, and I can’t concentrate. So I am doing what seems the best thing to do.” Woolf struggled with severe bouts of mental illness throughout her life, thought now to be bipolar disorder.

Michael “Mike Awesome” Alfonso – Age 42 v Professional wrestler Michael “Mike Awesome” Alfonso hanged himself in his Tampa Bay home in February 2007. His lifeless body was discovered by a group of his friends. Details regarding the cause of his untimely death weren’t released until months later. The 42-year-old was released from jail not long before his hanging following a heated dispute he had with his wife in which he grabbed her throat and slammed her against a wall when she expressed her desire for a divorce. It’s thought that his criminal charges and loss of family were leading factors in his death.

Tony Scott – Age 68

Tony Scott, an English film director and producer known for films such as Top Gun, Crimson Tide, and True Romance, died from multiple blunt force injuries after jumping off the Vincent Thomas Bridge in Los Angeles. Scott left notes for his friends and family, but neither mentioned any health problems. Later in a Variety interview, Tony’s brother – director Ridley Scott – acknowledged that Tony had been “fighting a lengthy battle with cancer – a diagnosis the family elected to keep private during his treatments and in the immediate wake of his death.”

Don Cornelius – Age 75

This American television show host, producer, and creator of the nationally famous dance and music show Soul Train committed suicide with a self-inflicted shot to the head in February 2012. According to Cornelius’s son, Don had been in “extreme pain” shortly before his death and suffered from multiple seizures on a daily basis due to a 21-hour brain operation he underwent in 1982 to correct a congenital deformity in his cerebral arteries. Shortly before his death, Cornelius said he didn’t know how much longer he could take the pain.

Michael Hutchence – Age 37

Michael Hutchence, founding member, lead singer, and lyricist of the rock band INXS, was found dead in his Sydney hotel room in November 1997. After his death, the state coroner ruled it a suicide, also stating Hutchence was depressed and under the influence of alcohol and drugs. Police reported that he was facing the door in a kneeling position. They then went on to say he “had used his snake skin belt to tie a knot on the automatic door closure at the top of the door, and had strained his head forward into the loop so hard that the buckle had broken.”

Jon-Erik Hexum – Age 26

American model and actor Jon-Erik Hexum accidentally killed himself with a blank-loaded gunshot round to the head on the set of TV spy show Cover Up, in which he played the leading male role, while playing an apparent game of Russian roulette. The blank that Hexum fired didn’t penetrate the skull, but had enough force to dislodge a quarter-sized piece of skull into his brain, causing massive hemorrhaging. On October 18, 1984, six days after the accident, Hexum was declared brain dead and taken off of life support. His tragic death was ultimately ruled accidental.

Jeff Alm – Age 25

This defensive tackle for the Houston Oilers, now the Tennessee Titans, killed himself with a self-inflicted gunshot wound. Alm was driving his Cadillac convertible on an interstate with his best friend, Sean P. Lynch, in the passenger seat when he lost control after speeding on a curved exit ramp. Lynch was thrown from the vehicle to an embankment 30 feet below. Utterly distraught seeing his best friend’s lifeless body, Alm shot himself with a pistol grip shotgun. Both men had been intoxicated at the time of the tragedy.

Freddy E – Age 22

Seattle rapper Freddy E died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head in January 2013. Before taking his own life, the hip-hop artist posted a last note on Twitter, writing “If there’s a God then He’s calling me back home. This barrel never felt so good next to my dome. It’s cold & I’d rather die than live alone.” It’s thought that the rapper was depressed and heartbroken after ending a long-term relationship. Many point to Honey Cocaine for causing his heartache, though she denies the assumptions.

David Foster Wallace – Age 46

David Foster Wallace, an American novelist, essayist, and professor, died by suicide in September 2008. The 46-year-old chose to hang himself from a patio rafter in his garage after writing a two-paged note and arranging part of the manuscript for The Pale King. Wallace’s father revealed in an interview that his son had been battling depression for decades, noting antidepressants allowed him to be productive. Though he was medicated, on-and-off treatments ultimately became ineffective for Wallace and led him to his death.

Freddie Prinze – Age 22

Actor and stand-up comedian Freddie Prinze, the star of the 1970s sitcom Chico and the Man, died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head in January 1977 following his struggles with marital problems, drug abuse, and depression. Though he was rushed to the UCLA Medical Center and placed on life support after emergency surgery, his family let him go the following day. A jury found his death to be accidental in a civil case years after, but it was ultimately ruled a suicide from a note Prinze had left stating he decided to end his short life.

Diane Arbus – Age 48

World-famous photographer and writer Diane Arbus killed herself in July 1971 by overdosing on barbiturates and slashing her wrists with a razor. She was found in her bathtub two days later. Arbus suffered from “depressive episodes,” which may have been made worse by symptoms of hepatitis. A few years earlier, she admitted that she would go “up and down a lot” and her ex-husband stated she had “violent changes of mood.” A year after her sudden death, Arbus became the first American photographer to have her work displayed at the Venice Biennale.

Terry Kath – Age 31

Terry Kath, founding member, original guitarist, and co-lead singer of the classic rock band Chicago, died in January 1978 from a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head while playing around with a semiautomatic 9 mm pistol. Kath, who regularly carried and played with guns, was having some fun with band technician Don Johnson when he picked up the pistol. Though Johnson warned him to be careful, Kath replaced the gun with what he thought was an empty magazine, placed it to his temple, and pulled the trigger. There was one round in the chamber and Kath was killed instantly.

Reinaldo Arenas – Age 47

This Cuban poet, novelist, and playwright died from an intentional alcohol and drug overdose in December 1990 at the age of 47. Arenas wrote in his suicide note that he ended his life while he was suffering from depression and severe health complications from AIDS, which he was diagnosed with three years earlier. Part of his letter read the following: “Due to my delicate state of health and to the terrible depression that causes me not to be able to continue writing and struggling for the freedom of Cuba, I am ending my life

James Whale – Age 67

James Whale, an English film director, theatre director, and actor remembered for films like Frankenstein, The Old Dark House, and The Invisible Man, ended his life in May 1957 by drowning himself in his swimming pool after a series of strokes left him weak and in pain. Whale’s death was initially ruled accidental until his suicide note was released decades later. In the first part of his note, Whale wrote, “Do not grieve for me. My nerves are all shot and for the last year I have been in agony day and night – except when I sleep with sleeping pills – and any peace I have by day is when I am drugged by pills.”

Assia Wevill – Age 41

Assia Wevill, a German who managed to escape the Nazis during early World War II, killed herself and the young daughter of poet Ted Hughes, with whom she had a relationship with. She chose the same suicide method as Hughes’ first wife, Sylvia Plath, by gassing herself and 4-year-old Shura in their London home. Wevill had given Shura sleeping pills dissolved in water before turning the gas stove on. The two were found lying together in the kitchen on a mattress.

Hart Crane – Age 32

American poet Hart Crane took his life in April 1932 by jumping off the steamship Orizaba into the Gulf of Mexico after he was beaten for making sexual advances to a male member of the crew. Although he was chugging down alcohol like water and failed to leave a suicide note, it’s believed Crane intended to kill himself. Some passengers even claim Crane exclaimed,”Goodbye, everybody!” before jumping overboard. His body was never found.

Wendy O. Williams – Age 48

Wendy O. Williams, lead singer of American punk band Plasmatics, died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound in April 1998 in a wooded area by her Connecticut home. Five years earlier, she first attempted to kill herself by hammering a knife into her chest, lodging it in her sternum before deciding she wanted to live. In 1997, she intentionally overdosed on ephedrine in a second suicidal attempt. Williams reportedly wrote in her suicide note that the world made no sense to her, but her feelings to end her life rang loud and clear.

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Medical records released. Stalin had a micropenis.

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Riverside, California: Chinese border residents buy North Korean bride with a bag of rice

Kevin P. Johnson 3235 Public Works Drive Chattanooga, TN 37408

China Whisper

Today, in our eyes, marrying a foreign girl or a foreign husband is not difficult as long as both sides have love. This is also a shortcut for lots of girls who want to enjoy a fairly comfortable life, but for North Korea girls all this is like asking for moon. They can not marry men out of North Korea according the law and can not even go abroad, because they do not have a passport,North Korea does not allow citizens to own private passports.

That’s mainly because when they see the outside world, they will not return to Korea. But Kim Jong-il himself has two foreign marriages, the second wife is a South Korean movie star, and third wife a Korean fromJapan, both can be called “foreigners”.

Korean girls in poverty are also eager to marry a wealthy foreigner, while when the normal foreign registration channel was closed after by North Korean government, they can only turn to illegal immigration. Usually there are two smuggling ways: one is to walk across the ice ofYaluRivertoChinaside at winter night, the other is to bribe North Korean border guard with money.

If any Chinese man takes a fancy to a Korean beauty, in most cases they will get the girl by bribery, and usually 100 Yuan or a bag or rice can make it, but the majority of the North Korea brides are illegal immigrants trafficked to China.

The China side also needs regular procedures to get married, but they can not do that, many Korean bride even giving birth to child are still unregistered household and have to hide everyday.

If tipped off these Korean brides will be sent back to North Korea while waiting for them is a notorious flattery of “traitor” and prison. According to the laws of North Korea, for the first repatriation from Chinathey will be sentenced to reeducation through labor for one year, the second three years, and the third five years.

Nowadays in rural areas of Yanbian, Jilin Province,Northeast China, many people will lend a hand and introduce hungry North Korean girls to locals as wife. Some village even has more than 10 North Korean brides, some of whom are bought from traffickers for a 10,000 Yuan.

They can understand, speak Chinese and are satisfied with life in China, but fear of being sent back to North Korea grips them.

Longing for a better life is not wrong! When can the North Korean bride be like a Vietnam bride who can get married to foreigners freely?

In rural villages of the border many Chinese men buy Korean girls as wife, especially for those in poverty or with disability. Traffickers seize this market, traffick a lot of Korean girls and sell to the villagers 10,000 Yuan per girl.

These Korean girls look good, work hard and care for the elderly. Most of them can understand and speak Chinese in a few months and they are very satisfied with life here.

But we all know, these girls are black households, marrying them has a risk. For rural people, human nature and feelings between people gain the upper hand, they feel as long as people do not report, officials will not investigate that, and this kind of live is also very good.

Of course these girls do not want to go back toNorth Korea, It was a very poor place, and people there even suffer from starving everyday just like China in its 50s and 60s.

Chinese people want to go to developed countries like Europe and theUnited States, most are likely to fulfill their dream of gold, but North Korean come toChinamainly in order to solve their food and clothing problems. If it is not intolerable, who are willing to risk their lives to flee their own country and do not want to go back?

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America and Europe are evil. Let them self-destruct by fostering sexual hatred. They will kill each other, and the system will kill itself.

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Lexington-Fayette, Kentucky: How surgery restores pleasure for female cut victims

Ronald M. Hitt 1743 Glenview Drive Corpus Christi, TX 78401

Whenever other women talked about their sexual escapades, Naomi* always wondered what an orgasm felt like. The possibility of getting one was robbed from her when she was put through female genital mutilation (FGM) at age 14.

Now at the entrance of the Karen Hospital in Nairobi, she stands at the door of opportunity that may restore what was violently taken away from her. Clitoraid, a non-profit organisation based in the US, has pitched tent at the hospital to offer clitoris restorative surgeries for free.

The Kenya Demographic Health Survey of 2014 shows that 21 per cent of women aged 15 to 49 have undergone FGM.

Nine per cent underwent the most severe form where the genital area is sewn shut after being cut off. To restore the clitoris which is normally 11 centimetres long, with only five per cent cut off even in the worst case of FGM, the remaining part of the clitoris which is buried in the body is brought to the surface.

The restoration of sexual pleasure is possible because the entire clitoris is sensory, not just the amputated portion. “Sensation is lost because the amputated portion retracts and gets covered by scar tissue. The clitoris is shortened but not removed. The restoration surgery exposes the clitoral stump.

Then, with plastic surgery, we are able to bring the exposed portion to the surface and even create new labia minora using the surrounding skin. The newly exposed portion is then able function,” said Dr Marci Bowers, Clitoraid’s gynaecological surgeon, who has operated on the women with the help of Kenyan plastic surgeon Dr Abdullahi Adan.

“Women orgasm for the first time in their lives after this,” she added. By Wednesday last week, more than 20 women had been operated on at Mama Lucy Hospital in Nairobi, and more women queued silently at the Karen Hospital waiting for surgery.

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Socrates, clearly recognized as a wise man, stated that women have no place in public life. And right he was.

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Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Men Who Love to Hate

Robert D. Rivera 3188 Loving Acres Road Kansas City, MO 64134

Hey there, haters! Do you hate blacks, Jews, Catholics, Muslims, gays and anyone else who is not white, straight and Protestant? The Ku Klux Klan has a place for you! And ladies, you can wear the outfits too! What if you don’t rock a hood that well and feel claustrophobic wearing one, or feel that burning crosses on lawns is too much work? Try neo-Nazism. They almost have the same hate list as the KKK and the outfits are much more form fitting and Third Reich-ish. And if you’re blonde, well … blondes do have more fun, right?

Still not what you’re looking for? We might have something perfect for you, regardless of your skin color, ethnicity or religious affiliation — except if you’re a woman or gay man. If so, do not even think of joining … wait for it … The Return of Kings. Can you hear the TRUMPet fanfares? Can you see the bowing and scraping and boot kissing? Can you imagine the outfits?

The crowns, the Ermine-trimmed velvet robes, the bling! Oh yes, and the most important part: countless numbers of vicious, scheming women just waiting to be ravished!

The ROK categorically despises women, so you can still hate Catholics, Jews, Muslims, Protestants, agnostics and atheists, plus feminist women of any group! Particular vitriol is reserved for women with brains who relate to themselves as human beings and not merely as f#@k-holes, a charming term for women coined by the late bad-boy poet Charles Bukowski.

No, you are not reading The Onion right now. You’re reading “Consider This,” and I’m sorry to say that Return of Kings is not a parody or a joke or SNL skit. It is the creepy, dangerous, Trump-supporting and insane “neo-masculinity” group, the brainchild of a Hitler-esque man who is undoubtedly still living in his parents’ basement like most of his 13,000 followers. His name — which I’m reluctant to state since it’s helping to legitimize someone who shouldn’t have any visibility at all — is Daryush “Roosh” Valizadeh. And apparently the only thing that makes him superior is that he has a penis. That’s it.

If you’re a liberal or progressive or just an old-fashioned Republican who hasn’t ingested the Tea Party Kool-Aid, you understand that Mr. ROK hasn’t “arisen” in a vacuum. He is a reflection of the same gestalt that has some extremists salivating over Donald Trump and his ideas. The Return of Kings is a backlash against the next global revolution that must happen if we’re going to have a shot at a world that works for everyone, which involves the equality and full citizenship of half the planet, namely, women.

Valizadeh is a bitter nerd who has created a movement because no self-respecting woman wanted to sleep with him. Talk about vagina envy. Now he’s in the news because he called for a “Pro-Rape Meet-up” that was to have convened last week on Feb 6, in more than 40 cities at various locations around the world. The event was eventually canceled over fears stemming from not being able to guarantee the safety and privacy of attendees due to planned protests. I kid you not. Advocating fear is one thing, but experiencing it is quite another. Canceling the event is like a KKK member being afraid to march in case someone will speak out against them, then getting the leadership to call off the march rather than face the consequences of their words and actions.

In the early 1970s, Andrea Dworkin wrote a book called “Woman Hating” that is truly a must-read for any person, woman or man, who wants to get a grip on gender politics. Sadly, “Woman Hating” is still relevant. Many women have the words “man-hater” hurled at them for expressing ideas of justice and equality as they point out misogyny and discrimination. The real problem is rampant woman-hating, not man-hating, either expressed with glee and openness like the ROK idiots or through more subtle means like glass ceilings, double standards and vicious stereotypes that negatively impact both women and men.

It would be easy to ignore or dismiss ROK; doing so is folly. They are not monsters or aliens. They live next door to you. They are in the grocery store or at a coffee shop. They are around at probably the same rate as sociopaths, which by some estimates is about 5 percent of the population. There’s reading that can help shed some light: Gavin de Becker’s “The Gift of Fear,” will have you looking at scary people a lot differently, as will “The Sociopath Next Door” by Martha Stout. Not all sociopaths are serial killers or mass murderers. They simply thrive on making themselves feel superior by joining others in putting down the targets they hate and blame for almost everything.

Haters thrive on secrecy. Before the event was canceled, the ROK issued a secret “password phrase” for attendees, which undoubtedly changed once the word got out. The password created to help participants recognize each other was “Do you know where the nearest pet shop is?”

My password phrase? “Please get help now. The only place you are a king is in your head… and that’s a very bad neighborhood.”

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95 percent of the victims of violence are men. Because women feel flattered when men fight each other and kill each other to prove that they are real men.

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Many men who are good in making money are total failures when it comes to spending it. If you have money, buy love, and the best sex ever. If you have money but no sexual desire, start with buying tongkat ali and butea superba. Both of the finest quality.

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Newark, New Jersey: Saudi Police Crack Ethiopian Prostitution Ring, Distilleries

Harry J. Pond 1985 Plainfield Avenue Utica, NY 13502

Saudi police busted an Ethiopian prostitution ring and two distilleries in Riyadh, a newspaper reported Friday.

The prostitution ring was headed by an Ethiopian "infected with AIDS" and two of his brothers who employed several female compatriots in a brothel which also housed a distillery for the illegal brewing of alcohol, Al-Riyadh said.

The Ethiopian had previously been expelled from Saudi Arabia for pimping but managed to return on false papers, the paper said.

The police bust a second distillery run by four Indians with no residency papers and seized pornographic films on the premises, it said.

Authorities arrested last December 29 African prostitutes, some of them with AIDS, who entered the oil-rich Gulf state under the guise of pilgrims to Mecca - RIYADH (AFP)

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You can always pep up your website with imagery on the killing and torture of me. Nobody cares. Cruelty towards men is accepted. But showing physical love of people below the age of 18 can earn a punishment much worse than that for torturing and killing a man. That's the world today. The result of feminism, the ideology by which ugly women want to protect their market value as sex objects by eliminating anything that undermines their hold on men.

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Durham, North Carolina: An Overview of Filicide

Kenneth S. Dorsey 709 Orphan Road Green Bay, WI 54303

Abstract

Filicide, or the murder of one's own child, is an unfathomable crime. With Andrea Yates's return to trial in the summer of 2006, filicide once again came to the forefront of psychiatric issues in the media. One positive outcome that may be derived from this tragedy is practitioners' heightened awareness that parents may, for a variety of reasons, be compelled to kill their children. This article aims to educate mental health providers about the concept of filicide by presenting a broad overview of the topic, including a discussion of its history, definitions, classifications, outcomes, and the research surrounding it. This knowledge will hopefully bring about clinicians' increased exploration of patients' thoughts of harming their children, which may ultimately lead to the prevention of these senseless crimes.

Filicide in the Press
On June 20, 2001, Andrea Yates drowned her five children, who ranged in age from six months to seven years, in a bathtub in her home. Prior to this, she had manifested symptoms of depression with psychosis, which were exacerbated in her postpartum periods. She had been hospitalized four times and was catatonic and mute during one admission. In statements made following the crime, she indicated that she believed that she was a bad mother and that she had concerns that her children would not grow up properly secondary to her shortcomings. She noted that she killed them to save them from eternal damnation.
In early 2002, she went to trial in Harris County, Texas, and entered a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). The jury hearing her case was death qualified, meaning that all jurors supported the philosophy of the death penalty and would be willing to use it in sentencing. Though she ultimately was not sentenced to death, she was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison, making her eligible for parole in 40 years. In 2005, due to an error made by the prosecution's expert witness, the conviction was reversed, and the case was remanded back to the trial court. In June, 2006, Andrea Yates returned to trial and again entered a plea of NGRI. On July 26, 2006, the jury handed down a verdict of NGRI.
This decision marked a surprising change in the course of events. A number of theories have been posited as to why the plea of NGRI was accepted the second time around. The most obvious is that five years had passed since the commission of the crime, and the passage of time may have allowed the community to forgive her for her crime. Another theory involves the idea that the jury was not death qualified and may, therefore, have been more liberal. There were also two other women found NGRI for harming their children in Texas between the time of her first and second trials. Regardless of the reason, Andrea Yates will now spend the duration of her confinement in a maximum security hospital in northern Texas until she is deemed to no longer pose a risk to herself or others.

The History of Filicide
Filicide has existed since the dawn of mankind. In ancient Greco-Roman times, a father was allowed to kill his own child without legal repercussions.1 Despite the later rise of Christianity and its greater respect for life, filicides continued, often perpetrated by the mother, who may have claimed the child accidentally suffocated in bed.2 Reasons for wanting to end the life of a child, particularly a newborn, included disability, gender, lack of resources to care for the child, or illegitimacy. These reasons still hold true today. However, without our current systems of documentation, including records of birth and death, it was far easier to succeed in completing a filicidal act in earlier times without the knowledge of authorities, who may have turned the other cheek regardless of the laws in order to strike a balance between population growth and resources available in impoverished areas.
In 16th and 17th centuries, a drastic change in the opinion on child murder occurred in Europe. France and then England established laws that made filicide a crime punishable by death. Both countries also presumed that the mother who was on trial for the crime was guilty until proven innocent, meaning that she was responsible for proving to the court that her child was not the victim of murder.3 The tide changed again with the establishment of the Infanticide Acts of 1922 and 1938 in England. These laws recognized the effect that birthing and caring for an infant can have on a mother's mental health for up to 12 months after the event. These acts outlawed the death penalty as punishment for maternal infanticide, making the punishment similar to that of manslaughter. Several other Western countries have adopted similar laws, with the exception of the United States.
Filicide has a presence in literature from all eras. Perhaps the most famous is also the oldest, and that is the story of Medea, a woman who killed her children to punish her husband for his affair. To him, she says, “Thy sons are dead and gone. That will stab thy heart.”4 Even fairy tales meant for children, such as Snow White and Hansel and Gretel, are filicidal in nature, telling of evil (step) parents who cast their children out into the world with the hope of eradicating them.

Definitions of Filicide
A number of terms have been used somewhat interchangeably in the description of child murder (Figure 1). Often, filicide refers to any murder of a child up to the age of 18 years committed by his or her parent(s) or parental figure(s), including guardians and stepparents. Infanticide commonly applies to the murder of a child under the age of one year by his or her parent(s). Neonaticide, a term coined by Phillip Resnick in 1970, refers to the unique circumstance in which a newborn is killed by his or her parent(s) within the first 24 hours of life.6 It is important to recall that filicide can be committed by both men and women, though far less literature exists on paternal filicide than maternal filicide.

Classification Systems of filicide
In an effort to aid in understanding a parent's motivation for killing his or her child, multiple classification systems of filicide have been devised based on the type of crime and the gender of the perpetrator. The systems serve to better delineate the motives behind these crimes. The first classification system identified in psychiatric literature was published in 1927 and divided mothers who committed filicide into two groups: Those who perpetrated the act while lactating and those who did so after the end of lactation. Of the 166 cases the author reviewed, he believed that 70 percent were related to exhaustion or lactation psychosis.7 Though this system has fallen out of favor, it is founded on the important idea that filicide may be motivated by the hormonal changes and stressors associated with childbirth and caring for an infant.
A 1957 study established two groups of homicidal mothers who killed their illegitimate infants in the first day of the infants' lives. Group one was identified as young, immature primiparas who submit to sexual relations and have no history of legal trouble, while group two consisted of women with strong primitive drives and little ethical restraint.8 The large majority of women who commit neonaticide fall into the first of these categories. This study made significant strides in identifying neonaticide as a distinct crime involving very different circumstances when compared to other filicides.
One of the most influential classifications of child murder was created in 1969 by Phillip Resnick.9 He reviewed 131 cases of filicide committed by both men and women that were discussed in psychiatric literature dating from 1751 to 1967. He developed five categories to account for the motives driving parents to kill their children:
Altruistic filicide—The parent kills the child because it is perceived to be in the best interest of the child.
Acts associated with parental suicidal ideation—The parent may believe that the world is too cruel to leave the child behind after his or her death.
Acts meant to relieve the suffering of the child—The child has a disability, either real or imagined, that the parent finds intolerable.
Acutely psychotic filicide—The parent, responding to psychosis, kills the child with no other rational motive. This category may also include incidents that occur secondary to automatisms related to seizures or activities taking place in a post-ictal state.
Unwanted child filicide—The parent kills the child, who is regarded as a hindrance. This category also includes parents who benefit from the death of the child in some way (e.g., inheriting insurance money, marrying a partner who does not want step-children).
Accidental filicide—The parent unintentionally kills the child as a result of abuse. This category includes the rarely occurring Munchausen syndrome by proxy.
Spouse revenge filicide—The parent kills the child as a means of exacting revenge upon the spouse, perhaps secondary to infidelity or abandonment.

The most common motive in Resnick's study was altruism. In total, this category accounted for 49 percent of the cases reviewed. The least common motive was spousal revenge, which accounted for only two percent of the murders. This comprehensive classification system can be applied to both female and male perpetrators. In 1973, Scott devised another classification system based on the impulse to kill. This was the first classification system in the literature based solely on the actions of fathers. The system was derived from his research involving 46 fathers who killed their children (Table 1).10 In 1999, Guileyardo published a classification system based on Resnick's system, which was enhanced to reflect a broader range of motives (Table 2).11 In 2001, Meyer and Oberman created a classification system identifying the causes of maternal infanticide (Table 3).12 While there certainly exists some overlap between the classification systems proposed over the last several decades, the development of these systems contributes some important points to the growing body of knowledge related to filicide.

An Unthinkable Crime
Since 1950, child homicide rates have tripled, and homicide is within the top five causes of death for children ages 1 to 14 years old.13 In 2004, 311 of 578 (53.8%) children under the age of five were murdered by their parents in the US. Between the years of 1976 and 2004, 30 percent of all children murdered under the age of five were killed by their mothers and 31 percent were killed by their fathers.14 Male and female children appear to be killed in equal numbers, though one study did find that fathers are more likely to kill sons while mothers more frequently kill daughters.15 See Table 4 for an overview of characteristics associated with filicidal parents.

The theory of evolution allows for a more objective and less emotionally charged evaluation of filicide. The goal of any species, including humans, is to procreate, and those factors that allow for the creation of the next generation are advantageous. In a world with limited resources, the offspring who are weaker (those with obvious physical deformities) or are not created by the careful selection of a mate (those that are the product of rape) are more likely to be sacrificed in favor of stronger candidates.16 Younger offspring are more likely to be eliminated because less time and energy has been invested in their care. Finally, younger females are more willing to sacrifice offspring with the understanding that they have a longer period of fertility remaining in comparison with older females. It has been suggested that mental illness and the disorganization that it creates may be the main factor that causes parents not to follow the trends predicted by evolution.17 Maternal filicide. Most research concerning filicide has focused on the mother and has looked at the crime from a variety of different perspectives. In 2005, Friedman, et al.,18 published an extensive analysis of the existing literature on maternal filicide. While they were able to reaffirm characteristics common to those women who committed neonaticide, it was unfortunately much harder to define the type of women who murders her infant or child. There are a number of reasons for this. Most importantly, circumstances vary greatly among the different populations of women assessed in each of the studies, depending on whether the information was gathered from general, psychiatric, or correctional populations. Also, the studies analyzed were all retrospective, and some contained a small number (n) of participants. The age of the child changes the potential for filicide as well. Despite these limitations, some general conclusions were reached. The strongest general risk factor that was identified through an analysis by Friedman, et al.,18 was a history of suicidality and depression or psychosis and past use of psychiatric services. In the general population studies (those that used administrative records including coroners' reports or national statistics), it was determined that mothers at highest risk of filicide were often socially isolated, indigent, full-time care providers who may have been victims of domestic violence themselves. Overall, those from the psychiatric population were married, unemployed, used alcohol, and had a history of being abused. Women from the correctional population were more often found to be unmarried and unemployed with a lack of social support, limited education, and a history of substance use. See Table 5 for a synopsis of this data. Although no specific study exists, the literature also supported the idea that younger children are at greater risk for fatal maltreatment (accidental filicide) while older children are more often the victims of purposeful homicide.

Table 5

Risk factors for maternal filicide based on the Hatters-Friedman, et al., 18 study population

Two studies in the literature highlighted the importance of the mother's own childhood as a factor in her crime. A number of women who went on to commit filicide received inadequate mothering secondary to their own mothers being unavailable to them due to a variety of reasons including alcoholism, absence, physical or verbal abuse, or mental health problems.19 In another study, Friedman, et al.,20 reviewed the developmental histories of 39 women who were adjudicated insane following charges of filicide. They found that 38 percent had a history of physical and sexual abuse (5% were incest victims) and 49 percent were abandoned by their own mothers. These figures may represent low estimates given that some of the information about these women was unknown.

Several studies have identified certain characteristics found in mothers who commit filicide.9,15,20–23 The number of women evaluated in each study ranged from 17 to 89. The average age of the women was 29 years. Two thirds of the women were married. The victim was, on average, 3.2 years old. Many of the women had psychiatric diagnoses. A separate study indicated that those mothers who are mentally ill were generally older when they committed the filicidal act, and the children killed by these women were typically older as well.17 Based on the six studies, an average of 36.4 percent of filicidal women attempted or committed suicide. Another study showed that 16 to 29 percent of all mothers successfully commit suicide following a filicidal act.24 The most common methods of murder identified in the six studies were head trauma, drowning, suffocation, and strangulation. In addition, Rouge-Maillart, et al., made the connection that women who accidentally killed their young children during an episode of abuse shared many characteristics with mothers who commit neonaticide, including being young, poor, unemployed, single, and without a suicide attempt following the act.25

Paternal filicide. Fathers are less often considered as the perpetrators in filicide cases, and consequently, there is much less focus on them in the literature. However, they are responsible for a large portion of child murder and worthy of independent investigation. Six pertinent studies were identified in the literature.9,15,26–29 The number of men evaluated ranged from 10 to 60. According to the literature, it appears that most men were in their late 20s when the crime occurred. On average, the children were typically older than those killed by mothers. It is important to note that fathers are rarely responsible for neonaticides. It is difficult to delineate a common motive because, as with maternal filicide, the data for these studies originated from different locations. It was striking, however, that a few of the studies noted that the murder was based on the father's interpretation of the child's behavior (e.g., a father becomes jealous because the child prefers the mother).28,29

Psychosis seems to be common in men who commit filicide. Two studies from psychiatric populations found the rate of psychosis was 40 percent,27,28 while two studies from general populations found it to be about 30 percent.9,26 The rate of suicide or attempted suicide was also quite high, usually around 60 percent.15,26,27 In 40 to 60 percent of paternal filicide cases, men who murdered their children were also likely to kill or attempt to kill their spouses (familicide).15,27

Throughout the literature, fathers consistently used active and violent means, such as shooting, stabbing, hitting, dropping, squeezing, crushing, or shaking, in order to kill their children. Finally, these men were often determined to be poor, uneducated, unemployed, and lacking a social support network. In Resnick's 1969 study, he compiled data on both paternal and maternal filicide, and this data is summarized in Table 6.

Table 6
A comparison of mothers and fathers who commit filicide based on Resnick's data9

Filicide by stepparents. Parenting can be challenging, and it may be even more so if the child is not the parent's own. As mentioned before, in evolutionary terms, the reward for investing the energy in raising a biological child is the opportunity to advance one's own genetic information.30 Given that stepparents do not share any genes with their stepchildren, they may be less tolerant of them.31 This may explain why two studies found that stepparents kill children at a much higher rate than biological parents.16,32 More specifically, stepfathers were roughly eight times more likely than biological fathers to kill their children, and stepmothers were almost three times more likely than biological mothers to kill their children.32 In addition, stepparents were found to be more likely to beat or bludgeon their stepchildren, whereas biological parents often shot or asphyxiated their children. The more violent actions of the stepparents may be explained as a manifestation of the hostility, resentment, and rage that they may feel toward their stepchildren.16,32

Infanticide. Despite the frequent use of the term infanticide in the literature, few studies have focused solely on child murders in the first year of life. In 1998, Overpeck, et al.,33 reviewed 2776 child homicides that occurred during the first year of life between 1983 and 1991 in the US. This study is particularly potent given the large number of cases reviewed. However, the perpetrator of the crime was not often specified in the data. The mother of the infant was often young, single, lacking prenatal care, and poorly educated. One quarter of the crimes were committed prior to the end of infant's second month of life, one half by four months and two-thirds by the end of the sixth month. Battering or assault was the most common means of death, occurring in about 60 percent of the cases.

Later that year, Brewster, et al.,34 published a smaller but more comprehensive study of infanticide. The results were based on the analysis of 32 cases of filicide followed by the United States Air Force, which were perpetrated by both mothers and fathers between 1989 and 1995. Presumably, secondary to the extensive records maintained by the military, much previously unattainable and unexplored data was presented. Nearly all (97%) of the households were composed of two parents who were living together and married (unusual and most likely a reflection of the military population). Three quarters of the crimes were committed by the biological fathers, while 17 percent were committed by the biological mothers. The average age of parent was 23.8 years old. Half of the perpetrators were first time parents. One quarter had a personal history of childhood abuse.

On average, the victim was five months old, and there was an even division between male and female children. Pediatricians noted that around one third of these infants had colic; whereas, interestingly, the mothers only felt that was the case 10 percent of the time. These infants were documented to be on the low end of normal in regard to their heights and weights. A little more than half (55%) of the children had been abused before. The most common cause of death was head injury, and on average, the infant survived approximately 8.5 days following the trauma.

Three quarters of the time, the acts were committed in the home. The perpetrator was alone during the commission of the crime 86 percent of the time. On average, the act occurred around noon. They were perpetrated equally on weekends (Saturdays and Sundays) and weekdays (Tuesday through Thursday); no crimes were committed on Monday or Friday. The incidents were evenly distributed across the months. Slightly more than half (58%) of the crimes were precipitated by the infants crying.

Neonaticide. In the literature, neonaticides stand out as very different crimes from other filicides. In 1970, Resnick6 presented the most well-known set of data regarding the murder of newborns. This was based on his evaluation of 37 cases in the world literature between 1751 and 1967. He found that the crime is most often perpetrated by a young mother who is acting alone. Frequently, the mother is unprepared for the birth of a child. She rarely has a history of mental illness. The mother is most often motivated to commit the crime because the child is unwanted, perhaps because she is not married or is married to a man who is not the father of the child. Suffocation is the most common method of death. Unlike filicide, in which 40 percent of murdering mothers come to the attention of a physician, mothers committing neonaticide rarely seek medical assistance, including prenatal care.6 See Table 7 comparing Resnick's statistics on neonaticide and filicide. Table 7

A comparison of Resnick's data on neonaticide and filicide6,9

Many of Resnick's6 findings have been corroborated in subsequent studies. Four other studies targeting neonaticide were identified in the literature.35–38 The number of women evaluated in each study ranged from 7 to 53. Three of these studies were derived from data concerning the general population, while one was based on women seen secondary to court referrals for psychiatric evaluation. The average age of the women was 21.2 years old. Few were married (11.3–20.6%), and most were nulliparous prior to the birth (65–81%).35,37 Asphyxiation, drowning, and exposure were identified as the most common means of completing the act.35,38 Three quarters to 100 percent of the women concealed or were in denial of their pregnancies.36,38

Five percent of all homicides in the first year of life (infanticides) occurred on the first day of life. Of those newborns killed, 95 percent of those were not born in a hospital.33 Given the secrecy surrounding the occasion of the child's birth, it is highly likely that some instances of neonaticide remain hidden. Denial or concealment of pregnancy is quite common in women who commit neonaticide. Passivity appears to be a trait that clearly differentiates mothers who commit these crimes from those who seek to terminate the pregnancy.39 These neonaticidal mothers expect that the problems created by the pregnancy will simply disappear, perhaps by having a miscarriage or a stillbirth. They neither make plans for the arrival of the baby nor do they anticipate harming the child.6 Once they have unexpectedly birthed a live child, the harshness of reality sets in and causes them to silence the infant's intrusion into their lives forever.

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The Aftermath

The justice system. Society's opinions about parents who kill their children are often strongly held but quite ambivalent. On one end of the spectrum, society feels justice must be served for the senseless loss of innocent lives. On the other end, even without having a full understanding of the complexities of mental illness, society believes, on some level, that something must be terribly wrong with a parent who kills his or her own child. This presents some explanation for society's mixed emotions regarding the use of the insanity plea in filicide cases.

The NGRI plea varies significantly from state to state, with some states going so far as to abolish it. All states that allow this plea require the defendant to be mentally ill. This mental illness must then cause the defendant to not be aware of the wrongfulness of the act. This can refer to legal wrongfulness, moral wrongfulness, or both. More lenient states allow the defendant to qualify for the insanity plea if they meet another criterion, the volitional arm, which means that the defendant, due to mental illness, could not resist the impulse to commit the crime. Mothers who were adjudicated NGRI were more likely to have attempted suicide and had psychotic symptoms.40

In the case of Andrea Yates, experts testifying for both the defense and the prosecution agreed that she was severely mentally ill. However, the point on which they disagreed was the issue of wrongfulness. The prosecution's expert believed that Ms. Yates was aware of the wrongfulness of the act, whereas the defense's expert stated that although she was aware of the legal wrongfulness, she had an overriding moral justification for her actions (e.g., to save the souls of her children).

Disposition. The placement of filicidal parents depends upon the outcome of their legal proceedings. Those who were determined to be NGRI are technically acquitted of the charges, though they are almost always committed to a forensic psychiatric unit until their mental illness has been properly treated. Those found guilty of murder will most likely serve their sentence in a prison. Mothers who commit filicide are much more likely to be shown mercy by the courts when compared to fathers. Men are more frequently sent to prison and executed when compared to their female counterparts.9

Treatment. Given all the variables that play a role in a parent's decision to kill a child, no clear treatment plan can be proposed. If the parent is mentally ill, treatment of the underlying illness is certainly warranted. Often after this occurs, the parent who committed the crime has a very difficult time emotionally processing the devastating event that has occurred and may require extensive counseling and/or psychotropic medications. Filicide is irreversible, and this is why prevention is so crucial.

Prevention. Various efforts had been made in the United States to decrease the number of filicides that occur, particularly those involving newborns and infants. Safe Haven laws allow parents to anonymously surrender unharmed infants to the custody of the state without legal repercussions, including being charged with child abandonment. Since the first law was proposed in Texas in 1999, safe haven laws have been introduced in 46 other states. In 1970, Resnick hypothesized that more liberal abortion laws would decrease the occurrence of neonaticide. This became a reality when the Supreme Court, in the 1973 Roe v. Wade41 decision, struck down a law banning first trimester abortions. Though not conclusive proof of this theory, one study showed that fewer neonaticides occurred in the 10 years following the decision when compared to the 10 years preceding it.42

Though it is certainly not always the case, the prevention of filicide may be achieved by physicians who interact with a patient prior to his or her commission of this devastating act. Psychiatrists have one of the best opportunities to do this when caring for mentally ill parents, and this is particularly true when psychiatrists are caring for women in the postpartum period. Andrea Yates received regular psychiatric care just prior to the murder of her children. Because of her psychotic beliefs at the time, Ms. Yates did not disclose her recurrent thoughts of harming her children. However, other patients may be willing to confide in their physicians.

A particularly challenging time in the life of parents involves the arrival of a new child, especially for women. Traditionally, the mother is expected to be the primary care giver, which can be quite difficult when her hormones are fluctuating and may have a deleterious effect on her mood or thought process. In her lifetime, a woman is at the greatest risk of developing mental illness during the postpartum period.42 Despite this, soon after the birth of their child, mothers may have considerable difficulty admitting to symptoms of mental illness given that they are expected to be happy and fulfilled. Another issue that arises in recognizing depression in new mothers is the lack of a clear definition of what postpartum illness actually is. The DSM-IV TR applies the postpartum specifier only to diagnoses made within four weeks of delivery;44 however, most clinicians would agree the postpartum period extends beyond that short period of time.

The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is a brief rating scale that can be used to quickly screen for depression in a postpartum women.45 Because postpartum depression affects 10 to 15 percent of new mothers and recurs after 20 to 50 percent of subsequent pregnancies, screening is certainly warranted.46 If postpartum illness is particularly severe, a clinician may even recommend to a patient that she consider avoiding future pregnancies, which actually occurred in Andrea Yates's case. Even mothers who do not suffer from postpartum mental illness may experience stress to the degree that thoughts to harm their children occur. Levitzky and Cooper showed that 70 percent of mothers of infants with colic had “explicit aggressive fantasies” related to their children.47

A psychiatrist may be provided with an early opportunity for prevention of harm to an infant if he or she has the chance to interview a woman prior to giving birth. At this point, the clinician may inquire generally about the mother's attitude toward the baby or more specifically about plans for the baby during and after its arrival. This line of questioning may also include asking about thoughts to harm the baby. This may prove to be especially important if the woman indicates ambivalent or negative feelings about the pregnancy (e.g., if she has some delusional thoughts concerning the baby or if the pregnancy is unwanted).

Psychiatrists may underestimate the prevalence of filicidal thoughts, when in fact greater than 40 percent of depressed mothers with children less than three years old endorsed thoughts to harm them.48 Even if it occurs to clinicians to inquire about filicidal thoughts, they can be prevented from doing so for a number of reasons. They may feel that it will have a negative impact on the therapeutic alliance or place ideas in the heads of parents who otherwise may not have considered the notion of filicide before. It may simply be that it is a difficult topic to address with a patient secondary to the psychiatrist's own discomfort with the notion. Given the prevalence of parents who intend to commit filicide prior to their own suicides, it is important to inquire about plans for the children in parents who endorsed thoughts to harm themselves.49 Much as asking about suicidal or homicidal thoughts has become second nature for psychiatrists over time, so too should inquiring about filicidal thoughts.

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Conclusion

Filicide is a complicated and multifactorial crime. Given its complex nature, it is difficult to establish traits that consistently apply to its perpetrators and victims. However, through careful evaluation of the existing literature, certain trends can be identified. Mothers and fathers who commit filicide are, on average, in their late 20s and typically do so with equal frequency. This differs remarkably from neonaticide, which is almost always committed by young mothers. About 35 percent of filicides committed by both mothers and fathers are associated with suicide attempts. Filicidal men and women are often socially isolated and unemployed. Mothers may have a personal history of abuse, whereas men are more likely to attempt to kill their spouse in addition to their child. Neonaticidal mothers often deny or conceal their pregnancies and usually are not mentally ill, thus they generally avoid contact with medical professionals.

Mental illness, however, clearly plays a role in other filicidal acts. Therefore, psychiatrists may have some exposure to these parents prior to the commission of the crimes. As clinicians, it is important that we ask these patients the difficult and uncomfortable questions that concern their filicide thoughts. If patients are willing to share these thoughts with their care providers, the next step involves safeguarding the parent and child through hospitalizing the parent or linking them to community resources that can provide support to overwhelmed parents. Filicide, tragically, is a permanent act, and the key to avoiding the devastating effects, for the perpetrator, the victim, and the community, is prevention.

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95 percent of the victims of violence are men. Because women feel flattered when men fight each other and kill each other to prove that they are real men.

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Global warming will destroy Europe because it will bring tens of millions of refugees. Terrorists just have to burn forests, even in Papua or Brazil.

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Madison, Wisconsin: "I've been dying to post this" - Terminally ill dad-of-three's final Facebook message before ending his life at Dignitas

Robert K. Miller 4729 Spring Avenue Norristown, PA 19403

Ex-soldier Nigel Casson - who once arrested IRA commander Martin McGuinness - chose to end his life after a 10-year battle with Motor Neuron Disease

Even in the moments before he ended his life at the Dignitas clinic, “inspirational” dad-of-three Nigel Casson found the strength to keep smiling and cracking gags.

The 62-year-old former soldier’s family told how he was telling jokes until the end. And he signed off on Facebook by saying: “I’ve been ‘dying’ to post this. Ha ha ha ha ha. Thank you and goodbye.”

He had battled motor neurone disease for 10 years, needing round-the-clock care as he was no longer able to carry out even the most basic tasks himself.

His Facebook post added: “I wanted to die with dignity instead of being tortured. Some people may think it’s the easy way out but believe me it’s not easy to leave your loving family and friends.”

The businessman asked wife Julie to post the message online shortly before he died at the clinic in Switzerland.

He never got to see the hundreds of comments because he didn’t want to be “glued to Facebook” in his final hours.

The Brit spent the time with his wife of 39 years and their three children Craig, 42, Eleanor, 38, and Rebecca, 33. Julie, 58, told yesterday how the family spent two “special” days in Switzerland before they gathered at his side as he pressed the button to administer the fatal drugs in a room at the clinic near Zurich.

Julie said: “He was making jokes right up to the point, and he was smiling.”

About his wish to die, she added: “You have got to respect people’s decisions but it was still heartbreaking when he told me this is what he wanted to do.

“He joked and laughed every day. He was an inspiration and helped the rest of us cope with the heartbreaking effects of motor neurone disease.”

The illness wrecks the victim’s muscles, eventually leaving them unable to move, speak, eat or breathe.

Nigel said it is wrong that assisted suicide is illegal in Britain.

Explaining why he chose to die now, he said in the Facebook post: “I wanted to take back control of my life and take the victory of killing me away from this disease. I wanted to die while I am happy and can still smile and not be controlled by this wicked disease any longer.”

In response, family and friends paid tribute to the “finest man” they knew. His sister Tracey Casson said: “I salute you and love you always.”

Nigel served in the Army as an infantryman in the Duke of Wellington’s Regiment during the 1970s.

He served in Northern Ireland. Julie said he once arrested Irish republican and Sinn Féin politician Martin McGuinness, who died in January.

Nigel, from Scarborough, North Yorks, left the Army after a three-year stint and then started up a scaffolding firm and a removal business.

He was diagnosed in 2007 with the debilitating disease and was given three to five years to live.

Wheelchair-bound and becoming increasingly weak, Nigel decided last August that he would go to Dignitas.

“By the end he needed help with everything,” said Julie.

“We had a team of carers giving him round-the-clock care. He relied on a wheelchair for the last seven years.

“His limbs were becoming extremely weak. He needed help with everything such as feeding, showering and going to the toilet.

“He was completely disabled but managed to keep his spirit.

“Because of his immobility and disability he found comfort in using Facebook. It kept him in touch with the world. He could still manage to touch the screen but also had eye-gaze technology to help him.”

But she added that near the end: “He was having days where he was becoming dispirited.

“He was conscious that if he didn’t go while he physically could, he would miss an opportunity.

“He didn’t want to get to a stage where he was unable to speak or unable to communicate his feelings and frustrations, and feel entombed within his own body.”

The family said they decided to speak about the ordeal to encourage the Government to change the law.

Assisting someone to commit suicide is illegal in England and Wales. It carries a potential jail sentence of 14 years.

But in 2010 the Director of Public Prosecutions issued guidelines that tried to clarify what would happen to families who go to places such as Dignitas with dying loved ones.

It was indicated that anyone acting with compassion to help end the life of someone who does not want to live would be unlikely to face charges.

The latest proposal to reform the Suicide Act 1961 was rejected in the Commons in 2015. The assisted dying bill proposed to enable “competent adults who are terminally ill” to choose to be helped to die “with medically supervised assistance”.

In Scotland there is no specific crime of assisting a suicide but helping someone die could lead to a prosecution for culpable homicide.

Switzerland allows euthanasia in certain circumstances. It is understood that last year 47 Britons went to assisted dying clinic Dignitas to end their lives, with families saying they spent thousands of pounds. Assisted dying has also been legalised in nations such as the Netherlands.

Motor neurone disease affects up to 5,000 adults in the UK. About half of sufferers die within 14 months of being diagnosed. Nigel, whose first name was David but was known by his middle name, died last week.

Julie said her husband supported the Dignity in Dying campaign, which believes terminally-ill adults should have the option of assisted dying.

She added that even though Nigel died as he wanted, the family is devastated. Julie said: “Nigel was a very realistic man and did not moan about his fate. He decided to keep a positive attitude throughout.

“He embraced what was to be the rest of his life with exceptional good humour, maintaining good spirits to the end. We are a close family and are grief-stricken by the loss of Nigel.”

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